scientific literacy

Franco Abbatessa


Species Report


We all know the cute, cuddly, and fluffy animal that is always seen in kids movies or even some shows with a height of 2-3 feet at the shoulders and a length of 4-7 feet from there nose to tip of their tail. The males have a weight between 150-300 pounds if they are exceptionally large males they are between 500-600 pounds.  The animal that I choose is the Black Bear or Urus Americanus. The American black bear is a medium sized bear native to North America, but also has some species in Asia and Korea. It is the smallest of the bear species.     The black bear is the Animal kingdom. They have a very wide spread family that includes the brown bear, polar bear, giant panda, sloth bear, spectacled bear, and the cave bear.  Black bears are Native in Maine but they are starting to be introduced into new places, so they can be safe and not have to worry about them dying off because there are only 22,000 bears which is one of the most prosperous black bear populations.  In Maine they are talking about how the Black bears have come into human contact a lot more lately. It’s because they have gone through the trashs that we put out to get more food. So Maine has implanted some regulations to make sure that you take care of solid waste and don’t leave anything uncovered or else they will find the food. They are hunters and gatherers they can track food easily and get what they want due to there size. Some threats are that they are hunted on the occasion not that often because Maine has a specific season for hunting certain animals at certain seasons. A physical description of a Black Bear is a shaggy black furred and large with a short tail and the body and legs are short with a broad head and rounded ears.  The habitat that they like to live in are primarily forested areas with a lot ground vegetation, but the northern black bears can be found in the cold areas and fields and meadows. For Maine black bears the majority of them live in the northern parts of Maine almost never will they ever be in southern parts of Maine. The sources of food vary based upon where they live but black bears live a predominantly grasses, roots, berries, and insects. They also do eat fish and mammals, and what’s kind of funny is now they’ve developed a taste for human foods and garbage.  Based on the Black bears diet they help the ecosystems because of their effects on insects and fruits populations. Whenever they eat plants some plants that they help disperse the seeds of the plants they eat and consume large numbers of colonial insects and moth larvae. They can kill small and large mammals such as rabbits and deer which other organisms can feed off of after they kill them.  For the way that they mate they will spend days or months with a female bear before actually mating. The typical mating season for black bears is in June and July.  The average female produces cubs every two years. What months they mate in depends on where they live.  A female can have up to five cubs every 2 years. The females give birth to two or three blind, helpless cubs in the mid-winter and nurse them in the den until spring, when all are looking for food the cubs will stay with the very protective and aggressive mother for two years.  The way that humans interact with this animal is that they’re scared or they try to hunt it but the actual animal wants nothing to do with us they are normally shy, and retiring animals they don’t really have a desire to interact with humans. Black bears almost never attack humans they usually make fake charges, making noises, and swatting at the ground. The scientific paper I wrote is to be an informant for people on black bears more importantly Maine black bears and how they play a role in Maine. My paper found that the Maine black bear is living a pretty good life it’s not really bothered where they live because it’s very north where there is mostly woods and not really people. The only time that the bears are in trouble is when they wonder into civilization and when it’s hunting season. Most people don’t know that black bears have short claws that allow them to climbs trees.  Most black bears do not have the large hump that grizzly bears have. Urus Americanus isn’t just black it has many color varieties.   This is my scientific report on Urus Americanus or black bears more specifically the Maine black bear.


Website: April 4,2019

This website will help me figure out how my animal is classified. It will also be able to help me find out the specifics behind the black bear.


Book: Macdonald D, Year of publication, The Encyclopedia Of Mammals, Place of publication. Pgs 94-95.

This source is reliable because it will give me all the background knowledge I need to know about black bears. It will help me know all the height, weight, habitat, and all the basic things I need to know about them.


Journal:  Loosen AE, Morehouse AT, Boyce MS. 2019. Land tenure shapes black bear density and abundance on a multi-use landscape. Ecology and Evolution. 9(1):73-89


This article is reliable because it shows how the capturing of black bears affects the wildlife and the habitats they live in. It could help me talk about how the killing or taking of the bears affects the other organisms.


Magazine:  Linskey A. 2013. A junk-food ban for bears. Bloomberg Businessweek: 1.


This source is reliable because it actually talks about the problems with Maine black bears in Maine and if they should do something about it. They talk about the problems with there diet living in the Maine community.


Other two sources:    Seger RL, Servello FA, Cross RA, Keisler DH. Body mass and mast abundance influence foraging ecology of the american black bear (Ursus americanus) in Maine. Can J Zool 2013;91(7):512-22


It is a reliable source because it can help answer some questions about the general questions I want to answer for my animal. Like the hibernation aspect and also the food they eat and how they interact with other organisms.


Mahoney SP, Virgl JA, Mawhinney K. 2001. Potential mechanisms of phenotypic divergence in body size between newfoundland and mainland black bear populations. Can J Zool 79(9):1650-60.

This is a good source because it can tell me about the mating cycle and all the stuff about the offspring. It can also help me compare them to the females and all that stuff.


Racism at une.

  • Ranked 2,242 in ethnic diversity in the country.
  • Alliance
  • Black student union
  • Cultural council
  • Maine is trying to get a more young crowd by helping pay student loans when you graduate
  • Muslim students
  • Relay for life.
  • Me personally I help coach special olympic teams to build upon some changes in the university i almost advertise the school. To all my friends in high school i tell them about my school
  • United multicultural club
  • The coaches of the team could help us by branching out. They also treat all the kids of color differently than everyone else.  We have a very old coach on the team who is a old school coach. He wasn’t accepting of color in his time.
  • Having a predominantly white university scares away the people of color because they think there is racism.
  • Most students that go here that are african american usually don’t finish school here. They end up transferring.
  • We also don’t have teachers of color which is also probably pushing people away.


In order to end racism or to at least help it stop at UNE we need promote some good things that the university is doing to help it. As of right now UNE is ranked 2,242 in diversity in the country which is pretty bad for trying to get diversity into the University. Also it was also brought to my attention that combining portland campus and Biddeford campus the whole university is 12% African American which is very low, but also based on the history of the University almost all the African American students that come to the school end up transferring or dropping out. The school also isn’t helping itself out based on looking around and being around campus we have no African American professors as far as I know at least.  One way that I think that could help is finding a way to be able to make the school more welcoming to that type of crowd, but most people assume that because the school is in Maine that it has a lot of rednecks or racist people due to how country Maine can be sometimes.  This could include recruiting people in order to change some of the diversity.  Another way that could help is the sports teams. With the sports teams the only teams with diversity in them are the football team, and the basketball teams. People have noticed that the women’s teams have no diversity at all which isn’t exactly helping out. The part of coaching that needs to be fixed is that they need to not go based upon what they think is best for the team or the stereotype that African American athletes are the most athletic ones and that the white athletes are the more intelligent ones. Most coaches look into recruiting character or can help the family and sometimes it can make them shy away from the kids who can come from tough places because they’re used to relying on no one but themselves or they could have behavioural issues which personally I find the issue with young coaches or some coaches who have came from places without kids like that. In order to help the other teams is to branch out and take some risks or try to help some of them get out of there situation.  Bring together the team as a whole without the coaches and have some guys go up and talk about some racist stuff that has happened to them during a sporting event in order to get a reaction from the teammates. So the team can come together and eventually want to do something about in order to help our brothers. Doing this could make people start to talk. With the strong ties aspect would be with his teammates and the ability to say something as a whole team or family and not just an individual is a lot more powerful. Then the strong ties could tell there other strong ties such as their parents. Ultimately causing a chain reaction the parents could tell other parents or even come to together and say something to the school which makes them act upon the issue. The sense of having that chain reaction in the weak ties to make something bigger than it actually is huge when your trying to get rid of problem as big as racism. In Kyle Kovers piece when he talks about what happened to Thabo he then immediately goes to the Jazz front office and asks if the whole team can sit down and talk about these issues in Utah so that they can resolve them. For instance with Russell Westbrook the fan who proceeded to yell racist stuff to him got kicked out of the game and band from the arena for life. The Jazz have a history of having a very racist atmosphere in which players are racially profiled a lot. Kyle and teammate Donovan Mitchell decided to speak about it as a team and a organization so that the players wouldn’t have to deal with it anymore. Kover also says that if you buy his jersey or come to see a game or anything like that just know what comes along with having my jersey or coming to a Jazz game.